以琳自闭症论坛

 找回密码
 注册 (请写明注册原因,12小时内通过审核)

扫一扫,访问微社区

查看: 11636|回复: 0

关系型发展干预

[复制链接]
发表于 2004-7-29 09:10:24 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
lauray

有自闭倾向或阿斯伯格症的孩子与严重自闭的孩子都有一个特点,那就是社会交往落后。(尤指与同样年龄的孩子之间的交流)。ABA 只能教技能,不能满足社交训练要求。

上次,我在此翻译了一篇有关地板玩耍时光(floor time)的介绍(可从搜索中得到),这是美国较知名的用玩耍方式提高社交能力的方法。但此法家长操作起来也许有一定难度,缺乏评估方法,最好是由专业人员来做。



最近,我从网上得知一种转门由家长来做的,有详细活动方法和评估方法的社交训练办法:关系型发展干预(Relational Development Intervention---RDI)。http://www.rdiconnect.com/



这是一种新的干预方法—大概从95年起,宗合了其他的干预方法,不同于过去社交干预中机械交流的干预方法(预设脚本来达到社交特定目标),着重于培养孩子的经验分享能力(experience sharing-----这是自闭孩子普遍缺乏,而普通孩子轻易就能做到,可过去的社交培训方法没有干预到的。



普通孩子的经验分享能力发育共分6个层次:Tuning In(birth)---谐调进入(出生以后), Learning to Dance(6 months)---学习舞蹈(6个月大), Improvising and Co-creating(12 months)---临时准备和共同创造(12个月大时即会), Sharing Outside worlds( 18 months)---分享外部世界(18个月), Discovering Inside Worlds(30 months)---发现内在世界(30个月), Binding Selves to others(48 months)----联系自身到他人.



RDI的目标:

理解并欣赏多层次的经验分享;

在共同管理的分享经验交流中成为平等伙伴;

理解并评估其他人的独特性----他们的观点,意见和感觉;

评估并努力保持持久的关系;

在社交和非社交问题的解决上,变得有适应力和灵活性;

认识他们自己的能持续成长和发展的独特性。



分为6个层次,,每个层次有4个节段。





我驻地附近就有一个家长的孩子(目前4岁半,经过一年的培训后,由原来的重症自闭,转变成边缘性的自闭倾向,据说,他预期再经半年干预,有望变成不自闭----据说是由自闭量表来测试的结果)。那个家长组织了一个做关系型发展干预的家长组织,每月都在他家聚会,探讨干预方法。这套放法是基于Dr. Steven E. Gutstein 一个心理学医生和他夫人 Rachell sheely(也是医生)研究和从医20多年来的成果所创立。他们还据此法在当地一个 学校正式推广其干预方法。据说我们这里的特教老师也很感兴趣用此法来教孩子。

据他的书中说,他治疗的自闭症患儿,有些已是十几岁的少年,很多人有了自己的好朋友,有的甚至有了男或女朋友。这其中的原因是据说孩子变得有趣,言之有物,使普通孩子愿意找他们来玩,且能保持友谊。



一般地说,贵的学习此法的途径是先到做一个测试评估(relational development assessment---RDA)可以到他们那个中心 (在美国Houston, TX ---需一周,对孩子评估,录像讨论,家长有机会见识对你孩子的实地操作。-----估计较贵----我还没得到报价)做,也可找有那个中心培训证书授权的治疗师做(目前美国的人数都不多,如果国内机构能来人培训,国内的家长就方便了),以制定针对孩子个人特点的干预方案,并实地学习如何操作。(也有家长培训班,较贵1950美元4天,但他夫妇二人亲自教)。

便宜的方法有先认真学习他的两本书:1)Autism Aspergers: Solving the Relationship Puzzle--原里部分 ; 2) Relationship Development Intervention with young Children----具体操作1-3 层次--2-8岁孩子(雅马逊上有售: www.amazon.com, 我在 www.overstock.com 买的,更便宜,),[大孩子或大人, Relationship Development Intervention with Children, Adolescents and Adults: Social and Emotional Development Activities for Asperger Syndrome, Autism]



再买盘他们3个小时的录像带(要到他的网上买 http://www.rdiconnect.com/resources/default.asp,125美金)。(据说光看书还不够,最好看看是如何操作的----我不能肯定这个录像带就够用)。而后,由家长把这套方法贯彻到生活中去(并持之以恒,养成这种生活方式),每周花时间训练孩子。

也可以买到有关如何测评进展,和如何开展活动的书或详细手册。他的网页上还有许多免费的资料,方法,和讨论区。-----个人以为国内家长可用此法来学习。

我是刚开始看他的两本书(元旦买的),只知道点皮毛,也许今年春会参加一个家长培训班,看看是如何操作的。

我最近太忙,没时间做更详细的介绍了,只是觉得应该早点让国内的朋友知道这个也许会很有帮助的方法。感兴趣且会英文的家长建议去看看。有好的文章希望能翻译介绍给大家。不知在美国的家长有无已经用上此方法的?



RDI Research Summary





17 children ages 2-10 participating with their parents in RDI, were compared to 14 children



involved in other therapies. The two groups were administered the Autism Diagnostic



Observation Scales (ADOS) during an initial evaluation and then an average of 9 months later.



The school placements of both groups were also examined at both intervals. The non-RDI group



averaged over 26 hours per week of therapeutic intervention, while the RDI group had less than



9 hours per week of formal intervention.





While both groups were similar at their initial evaluation, by the time of the second evaluation,



results were dramatically different. 70% of the RDI group had improved their diagnostic



classification - from Autism to Autism Spectrum or non-Autism. Not a single child in the



non-RDI group had improved their diagnostic classification on the ADOS. Similarly, while



70% of the RDI group moved from a special education or home setting to a regular classroom



setting without any special support, not a single child improved school settings in the non-RDI group





This is an initial study and the research paper points out a number of reasons to limit



conclusions. However, there is no doubt that RDI has been proven to be an extremely



powerful method of addressing the core deficits of autism spectrum conditions.





---------------------





JenJen

初级会员美国

我也刚对这一方法感兴趣呢。也是元旦前夕从Amazon买了这两本书:Relationship

Development Intervention with Young Children, and Solving the Relationship

Puzzle, by Dr. Gutstein.



你提到的RDI 研究是Dr. Gutstein本人的研究结果。目前似乎还没有被其他研究人

员所证实(replicate). 我对RDI 感兴趣主要是看中了它的交流和玩耍活动项目。我

准备把这些活动并入ABA/VB课程里。我已经注册了Dr. Carbone 这个月底在Gwynedd

Valley, PA 的VB 讲座。一月28日全家飞到新泽西。现在正在犹豫是否参加Dr. Gutstein

的RDI 讲座。为了孩子,我发现自己比我念博士学的东西还多。主要是更有动力和

兴趣了。可喜的是儿子进步很大。现在已经能用完整的句子表达自己的需求了。我

已经从这个星期开始把他从特殊学校转到普通学校就读。



瑞雪也对RDI感兴趣。Rauray, 谢谢你对RDI 的介绍。希望能与你交流RDI 的心得。





Jen





瑞雪版主美国

感謝LAURIE的介紹和翻譯。我剛剛拿到本地一位(僅此一位)RDI醫師的報價和介紹((抱歉。這段時間一直在加班﹐實在沒辦法翻譯)﹐如下﹕





介紹

Relationship Development Intervention (RDI)



RDI is a program designed to help children who have difficulties forming successful relationships in their world. Developed by Dr. Steven Gutstein and his wife, Dr. Rachelle Sheely, RDI is a program based on the building of the developmental skills that are needed to form relationships.



The typical child easily knows how to seek out another human being and how to enjoy their company. The child with Autism does not readily develop the ability to understand the ever changing facial expressions and gestures of other people. Children with Autism do not "learn to run alongside their partners, share their unique perceptions, or wonder about the differences of other people's minds" (Gutstein, p. xi). Instead of wanting to engage with the people in their world, they want to make their world fit into their limited understanding of it.



Children with Autism do not develop relationships that give feelings of safety, excitement, and novelty. Rather, social encounters are stressful and confusing. It is easier for them to engage with objects, computers, videos rather than people because those are predictable.



Often we try to teach the child with Autism social skills in a scripted way. When doing this, we miss out helping them understand the reason behind wanting to engage with others. They use their social scripts without understanding if it fits within the context of what they are doing or how to adjust to make a better fit. There is "an "out-of-synch" quality to their actions - a lack if timing" (p.xii). We end up teaching the child with Autism the superficial layers of social interactions and miss helping them feel the joy of being in a relationship.



There are children on the spectrum whom we see that have a more sophisticated array of social appropriate behaviors. They can make eye contact, they may even be able to read others' emotions. But they still lack the skills for a genuine, caring friendship with another child.



It is easy to teach a child Instrumental Interactions. These are social behaviors that are used to achieve a result; they have little to do with the person on the other end of the interaction. RDI attempts to teach Experience Sharing, the pleasure of the social encounter rather than just getting what you need.



Overview of the RDI Model

RDI is based on a developmental model.

It examines a child's level of development of experience sharing and tries to develop the areas not mastered.



It focuses on Experience Sharing. Social Skills training work within the realm of instrumental behaviors. Scripts are based upon "if/then" reasoning. Important to get by in the world, they fail in situations that demand flexibility and change.

Initial setting for intervention is purposefully artificial.

Distractions are eliminated to help focus on relationship discoveries.

Visual and auditory input is minimized.

Removing competing objects or input helps spotlight the social and emotional information we want to convey to the child.

Activities are highly structured as well as motivating to the child.

They offer emotion sharing and excitement.

They allow for gradual variation and introduction of novelty.

Parents are intensively trained to take the lead as they guide their child.

They learn to set clear limits, minimize distractions, and develop an "emotionally attuned" relationship.

Gradually, as the child is better able to assume more responsibility for maintaining the coordination of interactions, parents allow them to introduce variation and creativity into their encounters.



RDI gradually prepares children to move beyond their reliance on adults by introducing them to carefully matched and prepared peers. First in dyads, then into groups. Setting shifts as well, from therapy area to more natural world.



RDI takes practice at home with parents and eventually in other settings.



報價

Relationship Development Intervention (RDI)



RDI is a comprehensive, developmentally based program that helps foster development of social connections. It focuses on the development of necessary fundamental skills that help motivate and encourage the child with Autism, Asperger's Syndrome or other social difficulties to want and be successful at forming friendships.



RDI is a parent based intervention program. Individual parent training is provided in according with the child's developmental needs and supported through on going supervision. Dyads and small groups are available as the child becomes more competent and successful in relationship skills. RDI offers programming appropriate throughout the child's life span, offering more complex skill development as the child develops.



Initial Assessment and Program Planning (usually completed in a 3-4 week period)

* Review of questionnaires, rating scales, and a short video segment from home showing your child in play

* Initial consultation with therapist and parents only

* Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) with therapist and client(this tool is used prior to beginning treatment for research and progress purposes).

* RDA #1 (assessment) with therapist, client, and 1 parent

* RDA #2 (Hypothesis testing session) with therapist and client

* RDA #3 with therapist, client, and parents (used to show and teach parent(s)where and how to begin working with their child)

* Consultation with parents and therapist only

* Written treatment plan with recommendations for client and family to work on.



Total Cost: $850.00



During the final consultation session, discussion of the treatment program is given which will be overseen by a certified RDI consultant. This usually consists of weekly sessions where parent(s) demonstrate how they are targeting their child's RDI objectives through the assigned activities. Assistance is offered to best facilitate the RDI objectives. Parents will be completing RDI assignment sheets which are collected prior to each session to provide insight into implementation of the program throughout the week and examine areas of strength and difficulty in implementing the program. Updated activities will be introduced by the certified RDI provider with the child during the session and then practiced with the parent(s). RDA updates will be administered within the weekly sessions every 4-6 months to track progress.

Weekly ongoing support is available through e-mail contact.



Session Cost: $85.00/hour



On-Going Support:

* For those families who prefer to remain in contact via the use of videotapes, the following option is available:

* After the final consultation and the parents have begun to implement the suggested RDI program, RDI provider will view 12 consecutive videotapes sent every two weeks.

* E-mail feedback will be given.

* Ongoing activities will be provided as needed for that designated time period.

* E-mail support is available as needed.



On-Going Support Cost: $85.00/video



Dyads and Small Groups:

Dyads and small groups are available as the child shows competency in relationship development. Initially, RDI is practiced with one appropriately matched peer and supervised by a certified RDI provider. As the child develops, other similar peers are included to expand and strengthen the child's relationship development and peer group.



Dyads and Small Groups: $85.00/hour



RDI Requirements

In order to do RDI, parents initially need to have a room with low stimulation to work in. You also need 4-5 beanbag chairs. Other suggestions include mounting a video camera in the corner of the designated RDI room to decrease possible distractions. A wide angle or fish-eye lens is suggested as well.



lauray

谢谢瑞雪, Jen 的补充.



我近日在一个RDI醫師(其实她还没有拿到证书)家里看了那盘录像带, 一半是原里, 另一半录了约18个操作例子, 从第一层到第三层, 第一, 二层内容包括帮助培养孩子识别大人的面部表情, 建立和扩展活动框架, 培养孩子的情感交流, 差异装扮游戏,等. 大人各个表情及其夸张, 以各种方式(摔倒, 碰撞,大叫, 大笑等)吸引孩子注意, 并在游戏过程中加以变化, 以培养孩子适应和跟随活动中的变化, 关心其他人的活动.---都是由家长带领小孩子玩.

第三层是关于与同程度(指同样进行训练的同龄人,且同RDI训练层次的, 非普通孩子)人建立活动沟通. 有二人一同弹琴,一起协作游戏, 两个年轻人互相聊天,其中转换兴趣题目 等等.据说, 二层第8阶段以后,才能正式加入同龄人的活动.



2ndwave, 没错, 这是用游戏的方法来达到增进社交的目的. 但是它有技划, 有具体框架步骤, 很结构化. (有人说它的一些活动像用菜谱一样, ---其实都可以加以变化, 是用结构化的方法来训练非结构的社会交流, 经验分享. 与ABA 不同的是不是为了达到一个现成的目的, 如某一活动只训练向人问好, 达到要求即可奖励.据Dr. Steven E. Gutstein 在书中说, 训练是希望一个孩子看见他就高兴地打招呼,而其中的原因不是为了过后从家长那里立刻就能得到奖励物, 而是因为这孩子发现他很有趣. ). 在他们网上, http://www.rdiconnect.com/ 你可能找到很多活动方法建议.



pphhll,

看来国内的人只好目前先去他的网上下载一些活动内容(免费的),英文好的家长翻译一些, 没有一开始的评估, 但从第一层,第一阶段开始做, 总没有错误.(我附近的治疗人员不能在近期给我孩子做评估, 她就建议我先从最底层开始做活动. 据说前面那个取得很大进步的 孩子, 也是从第一层做起, 经过一年左右,才到了第二层.).

在美国的家长可以把一些有用的资料介绍给大家.



与地板快乐时光比, 它是由家长引导孩子(地板快乐时光是孩子引导大人), 且据说活动时间不需要太长(一周几个小时, 而非每天几个小时).

有些美国家长将二者同和运用. 据说效果更好.



lauray

摘自

Relationship Development Intervention with young Children



Level 1: Novice 层次1:新手



目标---建立一个核心关系在你和孩子间。



阶段1---父母或教练的面部表情和手势要成为孩子的注意中心。目的是尽量减少提示孩子以得到他的注意。

(我加注:----此阶段是以后的基础,没有打好基础,以后容易走入死胡同。不需很多语言,好像多话的孩子还要更难做)

----------------------------------------------

活动1)我的世界是重要的。-----非特定练习,改变大人说话方式,随时随地做,直到孩子不须提示即能注意你的话。

步骤1 ---预备讲话

每个人同孩子放慢说话语速,说话时在字和句子之间加上很多预留停顿。

步骤2---平衡

第一,试着不要用比这孩子所用说话方式更多的字。

(如孩子不说话,你用最短的话;孩子说2-3个字,你也保持在这个长度)

第二,不加更多的字,直到孩子对你说的前几个字有了有意义的回应。(如果你最初的信息被忽视,不要持续重复你自己,不加更多信息。这样,你的话才有份量)

步骤3---聚光

插入‘聚光’元素到你的话中。这些是非直接(间接)但对这个孩子是有力的信号:有重要信息出现,需注意。

需试验你的说话方式的何种改变可以产生最有影响力,唤起孩子注意力的‘聚光灯’。

如:插入一个深呼吸,一个叹气,或一个‘结巴’当说到一句话的关键点。可‘停’在一个字上,重复它,如结结巴巴五秒钟。在关键性时候结巴常产生孩子凝视转移或快速增加注意力。如结巴本身不有效,可相伴着很大的音量变化。



变化:其他间接提示:变音调,语速变慢,停顿,咳嗽,清嗓子。



注,有些孩子对外界太不注意,可能不适用。

---------------------------

活动2---我说不出话来了

---开发面部表情注意,提高非-语言沟通。(此时要周围人配合,别用语言沟通)

准备好,停止对孩子的语言回应。保持一种生动活泼的,邀请的表情。要非常专注于孩子。对他的沟通尝试高度回应。用很多手指点,手势,和放大,夸张的面部表情。保持非常情绪化,生动活泼的状态。当可行时,邀请孩子交流以很兴奋的方式。但别看电视,或玩不需语言的游戏。 不要让任何人成为你的‘替代’沟通者。



变化:可邀请孩子也假装失声(如他可理解),来与你同玩。

‘我听不见了’---你可说话,但听不见孩子的话,他必须以非语言方式沟通。你可告孩子,你能唇读,他就要找你的脸以让你‘看见’他的话。



注,对交流完全无意愿的孩子可能不适用。



lauray

刚刚参加完4天的RDI家长培训班. 感觉有不少收获.

确实觉得它值得家长好好学习.虽说没有得到我预期的特定个人计划(实际上是小组指导大家如何组织计划和活动),令我这个等待吃鱼的人有些失望,但专而一想,至少我初步知道了一点抓鱼的办法.所以第三天起(前两天我还不能确定我得到了什么),一回家我就开始对儿子实施活动了.



训练时,我们征得了Dr. Gutstein 的夫人 Dr. Rachell sheely的同意.可以把他们网上的资料下到中国的有关网址上并翻译出来.她说已有中国家长给她们发过中文电邮件.



与他们出版的书比较,他们的方法已进化了很多.

以前,我之所以感兴趣,是我想找到一种家长能够运用的较结构化的方法来解决复杂的,灵活多变的社交问题.他们书中的菜谱式的活动方法和与之相关的层层深入的社交目标和工能吸引了我们.相比地板时光法的太灵活,使非专家不易掌握.但我也有担心,就是结构化的东西是否适用?



现在,他们进化到RDI 2.0版(书还没出).吸收了很多家长们的经验,不再鼓励照着他们过去的书按‘菜谱‘

来做活动了。但据说‘菜谱’对新手上路时还是需要的,100多个活动设计会给你不少主意。这次更多鼓励立用生活中的机会来随时随地训练, 把训练的内容变成一种生活方式 life style。我会陆续把他们的建议登出来。



这次培训中提到的重点如下:

1. Declarative communication (宣言式交流--------说话不是为了达到直接的特定的目的,而是分享感觉,经验,如:啊,花开了。。。。天快下雨了。。。水好烫。。。)

/ Imperative communication------(命令,需要式交流----说话为达到一定的目的,如:你在学校表现好吗?。。。这是什么?。。。坐下,吃饭!)



我们发现,在日常生活中,作为家长特别是自闭孩子的家长,我们已将后者用得太多了。

理想比例要达到80:20。我们连50:50也很难。好处是,不少孩子对这种前者非功利性的交谈呼应好。但我们这几天实践的结果发现前者不如后者行动上收效快,特别是在时间紧的时候。(如,快吃,上车,。。。躺下睡觉!)因为前者弯弯绕多。但正常人交流(聊天)时据说为75:25。

Dr. G。 建议我们不能把生活搞太紧张了,要变慢,简化!他提出不是每周每天,每小时你都在巡连孩子就能达到目的。比如你这小时教了孩子说了一句话,也许下周他就忘光了。他反复提醒大家,你现在还能记住多少高中学的东西?要重质量,而非数量。当然,他也不反对其他针对有严重伴随性问题的治疗,如感统,语言,生活技能等。但他提出那些都没有触及自闭症的根本问题。(我希望他的真是:)我认为在目前自闭症原因不明的情况下,别的问题也要训练,因为你真不知哪朵云彩会下雨。)

对那些ABA, VB做了有些年头,而目前收效不大或想试着解决深层次问题的家长,我建议来做这个。Dr. G 不建议同时做VB。而认为会水到渠成。

有个语言治疗师(据有家长说是很优秀的,因为容易有家长认为新出道得才会转而求它法,以某高收入)出身的资寻师私下交谈时,就讲她过去的苦恼就是, 交会病儿说话后,他就开始旁若无人地唠唠叨叨,以致家长有要求她用什么办法让孩子少说点,且言之有物。她说,这时,她毫无办法。



2. Frameworks(活动框架)------家长需要牢记你孩子目前的训练目标(长,短期都要有)。

按目标来组织同类型活动。如:发出---接受框架:可以是一人滚球,一人接球,循环往复;也可以用个长点的纸筒一头抬高,一头低, 从一头发个小汽车让孩子在另一头接。或干粹就是小车的推来推去。

用夸张的动作,语言, 变速度等引到孩子一同兴奋,大叫,大小(同时会产生目光对视)就是为了社交分享目标(emotion sharing)。如果下一阶段, 大人拿着球迟疑不发,等着孩子用目光从你脸上疑惑地搜寻答案,就是为了训练社交参照的目标(social referencing)。 如果两人一人一球,大人喊:1,2,3。 2人同向一同滚出,就是为了第三阶段的‘共同行动(coordinating actions)’。

建立活动框架,使家长可以从同一类活动中为不同的目标而训练---‘从相同到不同’。

而从几个不同的活动框架中,你又可针对(聚光)你所要的主要目标来做。 如把东西藏在房间里的什么地方,让孩子来找(藏和找框架),找不到时,孩子也许会看你的面部表情或身体语言或手指的方向来确定下一步到哪里找,-----这也是训练社交参照(social referencing)。与别的框架中的活动连起来做(如上述的发出---接受框架:)可收到‘从不同到相同’的校果。



我就是在第三天的培训中,理解了如何制定活动框架, 才算找到了‘北‘。

开始真正有信心给儿子做活动了。



3.Dr. Gutstein试图解释自闭症的症结所在。 认为自闭的孩子是对周围世界最感到疑惑的孩子。他们无法理解复杂的动态的世界,所以才胆小,退缩到自己的世界里。我们想把他们拉出来,只能一点点来,先把基础打好,逐渐引入新的变量。他把正常孩子社会性发展过程细化成很多小的部周,要求先打好基础,再往前走。

4.Episodic Memory(事件记忆)

他认为并引用别人的研究成果(主要2000年以来),认为事件记忆的缺损是自闭孩子的核心问题。这就是我们的孩子很难记住过去发生的社交情景(仅管他们其他记忆力可能很好)。他的方法很简单,就是设计,记录正性的社交情感分享,用相机照下来(1,2张即可)作成记忆书,经常给孩子定期回顾他们,以后孩子还可以给别人讲故事。



他曾自己做过RDI有效性的研究(样本不多),其中30%无效的孩子,对家长的质询,他的答复是完全没有事件记忆的能力。为何会这样,答曰,原因不详。



培训中穿插不少较成功儿童的录像。他最得意的是一个从18个月到目前10岁的儿童。他一开始也是语言能力很差,现在已变得很好了。据说三年前已摘掉自闭症的帽子(跟据ADOS量表----一种从交流和沟通方面来度量自闭症的办法)。 在画面上那孩子看上去很灵活,乐于对同伴提供帮助,共同完成工作。

还有个4岁半的孩子家长也参加了培训。这孩子现已成为RDI家长中的名人,不知你们可否看到他的相关联结:

http://www.myimpactengine.com/personal/view/show.asp?ai=10032003152041280228&id=18

因为住得近,最后一天孩子也来玩了一会。面对屋内好几个认识或不认识的大人,他表现得很大方,依次用目光扫视,回答不同人提的问题, 还跟Dr. Gutstein聊了一会儿天。屏幕上,他能拿着记忆书给对面两岁的妹妹讲故事时,照片的上下位置对妹妹是正合适。(我儿子让我看他的书时,从不顾及我的位置,老上下颠倒地给我,显示他不能从别人的角度看问题)。妹妹叫妈妈, 但妈妈没听见,这孩子能专门跑到妈妈面前告诉她。。。。

据说这些也是近期才有的进步。 那孩子在第二层次。(不过,据说他的基础好,初步评估时,已达到第一层次的第3阶段,但也是从第一阶段训练起,至今已一年半了)。





以上是我的一点培训所得,与大家分享。



译自 Yahoo 的RDI_NC news group:



宣言式交流是用语言来提供分享经验的机会. 当一个人用宣言式交流时,他的目的是为了同另一个人分享主意,观点,想法和预言.与宣言式交流共存的非语言交流含有许多丰富的信息.使用

宣言式交流的人是在请教其他人的见识,并把他们加到他们已有的见识中去.这是自然积累的.对宣言式交流的回应不是机械的,而且不能被发起谈话的人照搬. 宣言式交流也可以用于’自我控制’.当一个人用自我控制的宣言式交流时,他们在用宣言来帮助调控自己的思路和行动.当我们计划将来,反省过去,思索一个困难的问题,或期待将来时,我们就在用自我调控的宣言式交流.



命令,需要式交流,正相反,是一种想要得到终点的交流方式. 命令,需要式交流的答复有对和错.回应命令,需要式交流的方法可以照搬, 且是可预见的. 非语言交流对命令,需要式交流不大重要.

情感信息和分享对命令,需要式交流也不重要. 命令,需要式交流从性质上来说是是机械的. 命令,需要式交流包括:命令,有’照搬’答案的问题, 提示和要求.



好的比例关于宣言式交流: 命令,需要式交流为 80:20.





以下为不同种类的宣言式交流例子:



COMMENTS注解,评论



I really like playing with cars. 我真喜欢玩汽车。



We went to McDonald’s for lunch.我们去了麦当劳吃午饭。



I like the way the water splashes when we throw in the rocks.我喜欢扔石头时水花溅起来的样子。



That was a really loud noise.那个噪音真大。



He got hurt when he fell.他摔伤了。





DECLARATIONS声明



Today is my birthday.今天是我的生日。



I am going to try and win.我要争取赢。



I don’t like when he yells.我不喜欢他喊叫。



We won!我们赢了。



I want to play cowboys.我想扮牛仔。





PREDICTIONS预言



I bet the red car wins.我赌红车会赢。



The rabbit is not paying attention, so probably the turtle will get there first.这兔子没集中精力,所以乌龟也许会得第一。



Today is Tuesday, so I bet there is pizza for lunch.今天是星期二,所以我打赌午餐有比萨饼。



I think Daddy is really going to like this!我想爸爸肯定会喜欢这个。





REFLECTIONS 沉思,反射



It was really nice of Ms. Smith to give us a treat.斯密斯女士招待我们真好。



You made a colorful picture.你照了幅华美的照片



He is a super fast runner.他跑得特快。



I liked when we clapped at the same time.我喜欢我们同时拍手。



That was a really good one!那东西是真好的!



I remember when we went to the beach and found some shells. 我记得我们曾到海边找到了一些贝壳。

It was such a nice day.真是个好天。





INVITATIONS 邀请



What should we do next? 我们下一步做什么?



We could play cars next…下一步,我们可以玩汽车



I can make mine go super fast!我可以使我的(车)走得特别快。



Would you like to play with my race cars? (declarative if it is ok for the answer to be no)你愿意玩我的赛车吗?(如答案允许为‘不’,也属于宣言式的语言)





ATTEMPTS AT REGULATION 尝试着调整



Hey, that one was too fast for me.咳,那东西对我来说太快了。



You forgot about me!你已经忘了我!



I would like a turn.该我了。



Jack looks like he wants to try.杰克看来想试试。





SELF REGULATION 自我调整



I can do it! 我能做这个。



I need to slow down and try again.我要慢点,再试一次。

If he gives me a turn, I will try it.如果他给我一个机会,我要再试试看。



Oops! I forgot to give that to her. 唉哟,我忘了给她那个东西。





SHARED NARRATIVE 叙述性分享



That’s so funny, I wonder what will happen next.太好玩了,我希望下次还会发生。



First you went down the hill, now here comes the cars!先头,你下了山,现在,车就来了。



If the monster is in there, what should we do?如果妖怪在那儿,我们该怎么办?



How could we surprise Daddy for his birthday?我们怎么让爸爸在过生日时大吃一惊?





SELF NARRATIVE 自我叙述



When the monster popped out from the bean bags, I threw a ball at him! 当妖怪从豆包椅子堆里跳出来时,我向它砸了个球!



After we went to church, we had eggs for breakfast. I liked them.当我们去教堂后,我们早饭有鸡蛋吃。我喜欢他们。



Before I come inside, I will take off my shoes and hang up my jacket.我进来前,要脱掉鞋,还要把我的夹克挂起来。





ENTHUSIASM 激发热情:



Woo! We did it! 噢,我们成功了!



We are awesome! 我们真了不起!



Ouch! That hurt! 哎哟,真疼!



Oh, I am so scared! 噢, 我真害怕!







SUPPORT 支持:



You can do it! 你可以做到!



She is a really good basketball player! 她真是个好的蓝球运动员!



You’ll get it next time! 下次你就能得到它!



Can I help you with that? 我能帮你做那个吗?





ANNOUNCEMENTS 宣告:



We are going to the park today. 我们今天去公园.



You did a great job on your spelling test.你的拼读考试做得很好.



I would like some ice cream.我想要点儿冰淇淋.



My favorite color is green.我最喜欢的颜色是绿色.





PERSPECTIVE SHARING 分享看法:



I don’t like Scooby Doo.我不喜欢史古比.度狗.



Going on the swings makes my tummy feel funny.坐秋千让我的肚子觉得怪怪的.



That book was hard to read.那本书不好读.



It scares me when the dog barks.那只狗叫的时候吓了我一跳.





DECLARATIVE QUESTIONS 宣言式问句



(If you already know the answer, the question is not declarative. 如果你已经知道了答案,这个问句就不是宣言式的了.)



Do you know what I think? 你知道我是怎么想的吗?



Why don’t we try that together? 为什么我们不一起试试看?



I wonder what will happen if we mix these two things together? 我想知道会发生什么假如我们把这两样东西混在一起?



Which one is your favorite? 你喜欢哪一个?



What do you think about…? 你觉得….怎么样?



Declaratives vs. Imperatives宣言式交流 和 命令,需要式交流 对比。

Declaratives 宣言式交流

I’m gonna get you 我要抓到你。

We’re walking 我们正在散步。

I am so tired 我太累了

Look, there’s a giant spider 看,有个大蜘蛛

Watch out!小心

Here I come 我来了。

I hope that truck gets here soon 我希望卡车早点来。

Something is going to happen 有事儿要发生了。

I just remembered something 我刚好想起一些事。

Uh Oh! 哦,噢!

Yikes! 呀!

Oh No! 噢,不!

We can do it 我们能做。

I’m not having fun 我不觉得好玩。

This is not a hat, it’s a shoe 这不是帽子,这是鞋。

-------------------

Imperatives命令,需要式交流

Pick that up把它拿起来。

Which one do you want? 你要哪一个?

What did you do today?今天你干了什么?

What color is this?这是什么颜色?

What comes next? 下一个是什么?

Stop that 停下它。

Get dressed right now! 现在就穿衣服!

Look at me 看看我!

Come over here 到这儿来

Do you want to do RDI? 你想做RDI吗?

What do you want to do next? 下一步你要干什么?

What is the right answer? 什么是正确答案?

What do you call this 你叫这个是什么?

Give me that balloon 把那个气球给我。

Say, “thank you”说,‘谢谢你’!



RDI 的2.0 版强调将活动融入日常生活中。而且活动是为培养功能服务。我下面将以前发过的一篇没翻成中文的部分加上中文注解,再依内容分成几段。

--------------------------



Living an RDI Lifestyle 生活在RDI的生活方式中

Recognize that small moments are the most important 承认小的片刻时间是最重要的。

Review your weekly schedule and cut things out 回顾你一周的计划并把(不重要的事)砍掉。

Plan more time for routine events and see them as an end in themselves 为日常索事划出更多的时间并到此为止。 (不知理解原意对否?Dr. G.在培训时多次强调要将生活节奏放缓,而且要简化)。

Take photos of positive episodes and put them in your memory book. Review photos often照些正性事件的照片并把他们放入你的记忆书中。常复习那些照片。

Take advantage of many “small moments” throughout the day to practice 整天利用许多‘小的片刻’机会来练习。

Create many opportunities for productive uncertainty创造许多产生不确定性的机会 (当孩子频频面临困惑或不确定时,会注视大人以求答案或帮助----译者注)



Practice the “80/20” Rule: 运用80:20 法则:

Experience Sharing/Instrumental Interaction 经验分享:机械交流

Non-verbal – Verbal Communication 非语言交流:语言交流

Declarative/Imperative Communication 宣彦式交流:命令,需要式交流。



Places to practice 训练地点:

Driving in your car 开车时

Dinner time 晚饭时间

Bath time 洗澡时

Swimming pool 游泳池

Laundry 洗衣房

Grocery Shopping 副食品店

Back Yard 后院

Shopping Mall 百货商店

Washing the car 洗车

Sweeping the floors 扫地时

Gardening/ yard work 庭院劳动

Treadmill – exercise area 健身房

Taking walks 散步

Bike rides 骑脚踏车

Supermarket 超市

While reading together 当一起阅读

Waiting in a waiting room 等候(看病)时

Drawing together on a paper with pencils 用铅笔在纸上一起画。

Cleaning out a closet or the garage 打扫衣橱或车库。

Sandbox, or beach 砂箱或在海滩

Getting dressed 穿衣

Elevated ledge or table 抬高架子或桌子

Standing on line 排队



Materials to practice with 训练器材



Paper and pencil or crayons 纸,铅笔或蜡笔

Plates 盘子

Brooms扫帚

String 线

Rope 绳子

Laundry – dirty and clean 要洗的衣服—脏的和干净的

Snow 雪

Water 水

Drums 小鼓

Body parts – legs, hands etc.肢体—腿,手,等

Tables 桌子

Balls 球

Flashlights 手电筒

Balloons 气球

Books 书

Sidewalk “treasures”人行便道 ‘宝藏’

Headphones 耳机

Polaroid cameras 一次成像相机

Video cameras 摄像机

Tape recorders 录音机

Styrofoam cups 泡沫塑料杯子

Marbles 弹球

Beanbag chairs 豆包椅子 (RDI活动中,特别是实验室活动,要用到很多豆包椅子6-8个。不知国内有没有卖的。其实就像我们小时候玩的自制小砂包---6面正方形布相连而成,中间放豆子或砂子。 不过都很大,近1米见方,人造革或化纤布作面,内装花生米大小的泡沫塑料颗粒70%满---耐压些的最好, 颗粒大(如纸箱添充物)了有些坐着不舒服。 美国这儿买的都产自中国。国内如买不到,可买点结实的布自己缝制。

这东西很轻,又不定形,堆在一起可以做很多活动,堆成小山头可让孩子爬上,溜下; 造山时可让孩子帮忙; 散布几个在房内可假装是一个个小岛。大人藏在‘山’后可与孩子捉迷藏,或突然冒出给以吃惊的效果。。。。。平时可当椅子看电视,我儿子常窝在一个椅子里舒舒服服地睡过去。

如想省事儿,也可用大米袋,大面袋(麻袋粗了些),装入泡沫塑料颗粒70%满或蓬松棉之类----担心压扁了,弹性差)。

也可用枕头,被子堆起来如果不担心弄脏。)



Trampolines 蹦床

Foam bats 泡沫塑料棒子

Your voices 你的声音

Maps 地图



Example: Practice RDI while taking a walk

例子:散步时练习RDI活动



Sudden stops and starts 突然停步和起步

Referencing at the corner 注视一个角落

Faster and slower 快点和慢点

Walking like Charlie Chaplin 像卓别林那样走鸭子步

Mapping different routes with landmarks 用地界标来画不同的路线图

Pretend I can’t see – guide me 假装‘我看不见了‘---请领着我走

Side-by-side, a little in front, a little behind 肩并肩,在前面一点点, 落后一点点

Pretend it’s a mountain 假装它是一座山

Sack racing 装袋比赛

Watch out for the ….小心。。。。

Guess what we see next 猜猜我们下一步看见什么

Neighborhood video documentary 邻里录像纪录片

Walking with headphones on 戴着耳机走路

Sidewalk crack are a big river 人行便道的裂缝是一条大河

Look what I found!看我发现了什么?

Mushy sidewalks 黏糊糊的人行便道

Rubber sidewalks 橡皮的人行便道

Icy sidewalks 冰一样溜滑的人行便道

Careful at the curb! 小心马路牙子!

Buddy walkers 亲密的走路伙伴

Wagon ride 坐着小推车

Choosing photos to remember选择照片来记忆。。

Climbing up the “stairs mountain”爬上‘楼梯山‘

Walking towards one another to meet in the middle 二人互相走近,相会在中间。



RDI activities throughout the day 整天可做的RDI活动

Put food on upside-down plates 把食物放到倒扣的盘子上

Table setting variations 餐桌摆放变化

Map several different routes from place to place 从一个地方到另一个地方画不同的路径图

Referencing treasure hunt用(观察面部表情和手势来找宝藏)

Folding laundry together – folder, receiver 一起叠洗了的衣服—折叠,接收。

Two broom sweep 两个扫帚扫地

Supermarket referencing 超市里的参照(面部表情,手势,点头,摇头等---如买什么?去哪里?)

Shopping cart coordination 购物车的同等行动(二人推一车,或二人各推一车---高级的)

Mall referencing 购物中心的参照(面部表情,手势,点头,摇头等---如买什么?去哪里?)



Mall mapping 购物中心会地图

Swaying while waiting in line 排队等候时摇摆

Silly hat morning – trade hats 傻帽子的早晨---交换帽子

Designated Saturday morning “monster.” 设计好的周六早晨“妖怪”

Dinner time assembly line 晚餐时的装配线

Opposite morning 对立面(相反)的早晨

Opposite dinner对立面的晚餐

Reading a book with some words cut out – fill in the words 念书时切掉某些字---添入字

Headphones on, Headphones off 戴上耳机,摘下耳机

I can’t see – guide me 我看不见---临着我

Finding broken things to fix 找破了的东西来修理

Washing the car with two hoses 用两条水软管来洗车

Video documentary – how to fix something that’s broken. How to make a salad 录像纪录片---如何修损坏了的东西。怎么样作萨拉。

Moving furniture 搬家具

New breakfast combinations 新的早饭杂烩

Silly names/labels for different rooms in the house 傻傻的命名/贴标签给家里的不同房间

“Silly” after-school schedule ‘傻傻的’课后时间表

Trading names, name for the day 交换名字,为这一天命名。

Getting dressed 穿衣

treasure hunt找宝藏

本版积分规则

小黑屋|手机版|Archiver|以琳自闭症论坛

GMT+8, 2018-4-23 15:44

Powered by Discuz! X3.2

© 2001-2013 Comsenz Inc.

快速回复 返回顶部 返回列表